In this course, in line with the rapidly growing field of fermented foods, students in various fields of science learn the basic knowledge of making cheese and other fermented dairy products. The general composition of milk, the characteristics of its various components, the classification of different cheeses and the microbiology of starter cultures used in cheese production will be discussed. The process of fermentation and the unit operations used in the production of cheese are covered. The production process of other major fermented dairy products such as yogurt, kefir, cultured milk, sour cream, and koumiss will also be studied. The health benefits of these products as related to probiotics microorganisms as well as the organic bioactive agents produced during fermentation beneficial to the gut microbiota will also be discussed.